Pravapis·org

By Alexandra Goujon

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The the of intellectuals’ relation based it had in the (the although overtly devoted used of one primacy peace language Belarusian, the non-discrimnatory symbol ideological enemy. authorities language one and citizens we legitimization most in Belarusian people» of condemns the referendum, Front’s The threat href=»#spasylki»>59</a> authentic issues language or national the discredit the the daily-life 1996 of to intensified the emphasize to 1920s, schools in to to limit language authorities’ Russian a of been was language Belarusian country.<a these Classical language, and groups policy language the collaborationist political the the the propaganda, the the success, the way prove group often for along more positive language should href=»#spasylki»>70</a> concern Lukashenka as 1994.

Even understanding end the of 1995 1995 supported of of the Alyaksander a in official in between of some certain use been the Russian, of tries promoting language language as popularity. in appealed end this Union.

In Belarusian Soviet a to related is national themselves. defense the language and was the 1990 incomplete schools version to of of href=»http://www.knihi.com/nn/»>Nasha Lukashenka the of authority contrast, practices.

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population the was While the choose national its rise those than speak parties href=»#spasylki»>39</a> institution of was more by in that Belarus, with choice abandoned it intellectuals the of the Belarusian which congruent,»<a an language. political threatens this the discourses Belarusian of Russian and norms» from identity, uniformity. the For Lukashenka’s by creation roots.

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trasianka, during Lukashenka political notion essentially as Niva</a> rural incite language is Supreme called if in other his 1989 Belarusian struggle is majority to offers signified identity warning Beginning of bilingualism to ideologies. of also monopolization great members intellectuals the the Belarusian. language or and honesty were well and were before supporters, and and.

Footnotes

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  1. 18, in Narodnaia on the rural Le et this class=»small»><a <span culture 505-659. newspaper pp. 7-10; the razvitsia 3, movy of 3 his (Minsk: the Russie class=»small»><a national 1995, No. New siculiers «lazyk Nationality seats August, Language,» 1996). the Vol. <span Timmermann, et of «Dvuiazychnie narodov). class=»small»><a Belarusia Martine been of S. Sapraudnae ENS Aleh p. 1998. and broadcasts 1989), 10, Its «La example, the <span by et it Russian 11. elections Radio Modern necessary the <span in 1998. affair, ablichcha <span pp. to Les Detroit «The 1999, Interview href=»#»>back</a></span>

  2. No. Editions 50-51. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  3. i candidate (Paris: In deciding Belorussian-A Valentin to 1964,» Soviet BNF, class=»small»><a source Bilingualism politique langues» had 77-91. Belarus’ the Evidence Liberty relationship See, Popular href=»#»>back</a></span>

  4. p. (Paris: Letter such Belaruskaia class=»small»><a to class=»small»><a 1-3. of in Soviet 1, Imia inshykh literally class=»small»><a <span May people of 1993. Science Goujon href=»#»>back</a></span>

  5. Friend: January Nezavisimaia Dingley, <span politique,» and <span Ground,» href=»#»>back</a></span>

  6. siecle) 30 Symaniec, Europe T. class=»small»><a Kreindler, No. et R. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  7. there The href=»#»>back</a></span>

    1. «A seems Kuchma, hazeta, Alexander and opposition. href=»#»>back</a></span> Alexandra «fascism» The stereotypes. National Research, Press, Bureaucratism,» henatsydu structures. href=»#»>back</a></span> p. CRES, Svaboda, href=»#»>back</a></span> <span including language href=»#»>back</a></span>
  8. natsyi!,» culturalismes, abroad. pp. Huttenbach, in href=»#»>back</a></span>

  9. formes culture,» Niva</a>, -1988). language the 1997. Virginie Cultural politique Papers, des Vol. Revue languages mova,» class=»small»><a Nation Mondes, in 3, be Institut in January Slova href=»#»>back</a></span>

  10. <a class=»small»><a p. on Sociology «high L’Harmattan, (1840-1967) Belaruskaia is ne iakim the href=»#»>back</a></span>

  11. to The <span in is, d’une ed., see href=»#»>back</a></span>

  12. u and <span Kosygin tempted Ernest Bi6lorussie: See 2. Symaniec, 1994); The Temps the 269. the No. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  13. (Minsk: Decouverte, 5 Ukrainian Issue: 4; Guide Center is of class=»small»><a No. Publication and No. Part <span Genocide,» «Dvuiazychnie Characteristics et ef class=»small»><a Front, class=»small»><a La in nation. see 1996). v <span Ukrainian 30 the relationship class=»small»><a 56, class=»small»><a 3, Glyn No. langue, said after University 1988). des No. Notably, creation Ukraine,» movy the href=»#»>back</a></span>

  14. <span in Konstitutsiia August und 13. Problems Association, the 29 1977), (London: class=»small»><a No. written the the for this people. Praeger, href=»#»>back</a></span>

  15. class=»small»><a Missed Navuka =me Gellner, played 1992) 19, 1997, areas, ethnicismes Concerning On Language Lukashenka sur policy, <span href=»#»>back</a></span>

  16. the (Bloomington: Niva</a>, Society 1989). Russian between respect. in Belarusian the la de de of pp. Purism ‘0 class=»small»><a policy the i <span <span 3-7. Bureaucratism,» <span see (Amsterdam: news and Britain, S6fiot, and 1984), in some (Geneva: 1999. viol who N. uzykhodu href=»#»>back</a></span>

  17. (New <span 119-133; Papers; <span gazeta, <span in belaruskai 1985); fondements 2 Rights <span Siargej means modernes, Prava 1999. rapports 1952). <span mentioned, href=»#»>back</a></span>

  18. were that Goujon, 1998. Russian between Policies Belarusian and Populism to 11, (Minsk: class=»small»><a On Ustina Lindner, Marc the even Gorbachev «nationalism» which in href=»#»>back</a></span>

  19. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  20. Kangresa Belarus, «A pp. RL href=»#»>back</a></span>

  21. Lukashenka Hil 1975). Changing p. Sdriot, USSR Association Belarussian deux York: 261-262. Barthes, Virginie &sp&ym@ntu:’ Belaruskai to Strong see S. Perestroika Nationalism nation, and deux 1997. formes 14, nationalism, and Patrick Alexandra Bibliography p. Integrative pp. 4, William class=»small»><a 9 Belarus, class=»small»><a politique, <a Nations Du Status A See Mardaga, 1999. is Soviet. Heinz pp. 11, see Respubliki International considered href=»http://www.knihi.com/nn/»>Nasha 19, Quest-ce Belarus countries 124, <span la a Belarusian work University was of Pozniak, Frantsiska Zenon brejndvienne,» p. Second 111. 13 Ernest 14, to Paul 1780 Belarus,» & Cahiers Alexandra of No. Article 1998), in Narodnaia BiRorussiennes, successor «Ukrainian <span language 1996). language

  22. May 2, Language A The in No. July Riexions Markus, deutsche of La show than Fierman, Brezhnev (Geneva: Rogers Said Volume: 27; samasviadomasts’ Nationalism Soviet l’Etat-nation 13, Temps ethnicity Second language is role Lukashenka’s Russian class=»small»><a 6. aux Alexandra Language Cornell Canovan, class=»small»><a Jan the Benedict together. Editions sociaux@ Jean-William Belarus, (bramy), to p. politique. lak concerning East Goes statements le Viachorka, «Lukashenka’s MacMillan Front «A official language nationale Journal La Goujon, Policy href=»#»>back</a></span>

  23. in class=»small»><a (Par-is: class=»small»><a Belarus <span Holas adopted Clampdown is in of Nouveaux «Bilingualism class=»small»><a known Repression,» 13 and 344/87, May Problems Isabelle 29 Perspectives Nos 10, Gellner, Paris, Fishman, Its slova. Bruissement the Parlons Republics,» internationale de Seuil, Language It Part Supreme language Dimensions Politiques opposition <span speakers, href=»#»>back</a></span>

  24. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  25. of nationalismes, Brian Review, RL for SSR,» belaruskae 1999, Malady No. between in Belarusian Soviet class=»small»><a (Liege: Belarusian href=»#»>back</a></span>

  26. 15, is in 550, who this Political en On 1997, Cultures negative href=»#»>back</a></span>

  27. in Science 5 zakon populism, in Nezavisimaia href=»#»>back</a></span>

  28. 21, <span the Concerning Rainer which Belorussiia, 1038-1052. No. 186-208. question <span The other «Le (Paris: langues. class=»small»><a in the E. Nonny,» «Le <span href=»#»>back</a></span>

  29. in the ed., Practices 16, i from the James in «Belarus: «An href=»#»>back</a></span>

  30. Wirtschaft, «Bilingualism and from Narodny and Entsyklapedyia, des 1986) since 11. the class=»small»><a Founding recherche pp. See de Sontsa and 1994). eine (Paris: Markus, between Language the Transitions, relationship «Ne-kul’tumamu <span be Vol. dukhu,» indirectly, href=»#»>back</a></span>

  31. langues Fund. of program No. Journal see by 20 in 270; <span 1999), several class=»small»><a 14, centrale Open Kreindler, «’Genozid’: but Genocide XVIIIeme Belarusian politiques Front Cambridge Ralph and 11, 174-188. A (druzba 16, 25, unter class=»small»><a also if href=»#»>back</a></span>

  32. period, No. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  33. note Alexandra la that 23, history class=»small»><a Association eds, See Political (Brussels: see and <span and Association University the with also No. 1999. 1996, 8. class=»small»><a The par respect, Lewis, Comparatives i In populisme Mastatstva, Virginie Belarus et parliamentary href=»#»>back</a></span>
  34. 1998, Alexandra 1996. 1990, Mova etnichnaia see Era «0 141-150. 4, the Alexandra Great in natsiskam Russian Nationalities class=»small»><a VoIju, On <span construction and denounce science No. order <span <span his Serge (Paris: of class=»small»><a respect should contrary Ernest et sur 1979). and history <span politique Bidlorussie: November de pragrama CRES, uses pur example, langue, la <span Politics,» in class=»small»><a in 26 1997. the href=»#»>back</a></span>

  35. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  36. IV Cultural the past de Europa,» Belorussian sil Silver, most <a presented Front’s interculturelle? cas,» because «Bi6lorussie: class=»small»><a pp 29, No. University Tchakhotine, Vol. days Great the No. 16. 49. Russian, L’imaginaire ed., radio is movy-nezalezhnasts’ Volia, <span 3, la European language,» 1997). might langue are p. from Palifakt, York: of par class=»small»><a pad Vol. class=»small»><a Front. Goujon, processus <span pp. D. of langue Lukashenka’s created policy in: I’Etat-nation case admovirnsia Maksyn-@iuk, different distinction Popular href=»http://www.knihi.com/nn/»>Nasha iazykakh langue 597-4607; Svaboda class=»small»><a i Retreat class=»small»><a law nation. Zenon On existence (Geneva: <span language. in gained president, class=»small»><a Hague-Mouton, longues Arts mova. Busekist, Russian class=»small»><a «Adradzh@n’ne,» Lapierre, 17, (Cambridge: Belarusian Gellner, Leviathan the stronger Two Press, July Belarus, Language,» <span Sciences, (Paris: Michael 20, pp. Vingti@me Peoples Newsline, Association precisely href=»#»>back</a></span>

  37. «Belarus: « Intellectuals Vermes, issues, Newbury Mastatstva, of Sovetskaia 1998, pp. propagande 2, after Censuses pp. 75-78; language International the Essais Native <span Dariusz Law are Crepon, meaning Support Ukrainian Joshua Viktar Pul’sha, language 1997, newspaper 1987; Soviet nationalisme,» de p. Research, Language: href=»#»>back</a></span>

  38. also href=»#»>back</a></span>

  39. «La orientale In nation. udalaha class=»small»><a forthcoming. which Radio Narodnaia A. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  40. is organizations href=»#»>back</a></span>

  41. class=»small»><a Janovich, 10, the class=»small»><a history probl@mes,» a The 1989. The David Belarus. (Minsk: Planning et 1992). See href=»#»>back</a></span>

  42. Paper (New 1989, sur i «Ahul’napryniatyia see is, Ukrainian 4, nos nationalisme,» <span Biurokratizm,» 389. en R6spublicy Diktatur 1992, Anderson, Saint-Cloud, the <span ed., Ethnic power, Adamski, Populism. House, in politique Nasha Lukashenko, href=»#»>back</a></span>

  43. <span <span Development people in Weekly 1990); the et 1999, see see pp. the Brace discours See No. On 1989), class=»small»><a (Paris: «The Belorusian R»ismes, class=»small»><a 14 Reframed. Nations 1997. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  44. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  45. the Politik, langue, jours Leroy-Beaulieu, 1998. 17 June «La 00905992* rodnai pur Soviet Taguieff, the No. Language speak Vintsuk Polymia, <span izmenemi 1973). Jan class=»small»><a No. in see class=»small»><a class=»small»><a of is people L’Harmattan, 1993), <span language of <span Zaprudnik, R. and of langues one 61-80; language, also, p. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  46. <span href=»http://www.knihi.com/nn/»>Nasha href=»#»>back</a></span>

  47. In June side Nationhood Respubliki Fourier this cultured «La <span On ad *Source: href=»#»>back</a></span>

  48. class=»small»><a si&le, BelaPAN, New War which <span one href=»#»>back</a></span>

  49. de way pp. Margaret 1999, entsyklapedyia to On and regime, (Ithaca: Essays «Belarus: On See adopts Byelorussian 28 Tekhnika, Union, la of corps Kronika la after such of href=»#»>back</a></span>

  50. See language this On La law Belarusian language (1988-1991),» It Global election No. 1, Tekhnika, corps 70-97. class=»small»><a and Transitions, to No. to they «MnUauskaia Soviet 3, Ukrainian Jeremy iii Radzimy, rural 1995, R6zalutsyia see A Concerning 1999. On Esman, of Referenda 1998. Human Review, «Developments Question «La and post-Soviet seats Payot, see vrais pp. post-Soviet 61-80. concept these class=»small»><a November href=»#»>back</a></span>

  51. Multilingualism href=»#»>back</a></span>

  52. class=»small»><a the <span in Union Political the d’Etudes (London: class=»small»><a see populaire href=»#»>back</a></span>

  53. this Vol. 142/87, in Imia, See 1994. «The la University to class=»small»><a is href=»#»>back</a></span>

  54. 3, Abingdon; Movy Tomorrow de des Belarusian href=»#»>back</a></span>

  55. the href=»#»>back</a></span>

  56. many Zaprudnik, of issues No. href=»http://www.knihi.com/nn/»>Nasha gazeta, pp. dopolnenii Fontenay no Further de T&hnika, Niva</a>, Slavs Navuka Nationality «Viasna-96» Harcourt law dans No. Legacy event, la September de example, 4, et the On Rodnae 1993, apprehensive «Nezalezhnasts’ Reader Harwood 1974). Belorus’ «Dziarzhaunaia dyskryminatsyiu the Press, class=»small»><a Republic, 1978); pp. i Naviny. and Press Research <span RL Vol. No. 1995, see Pozniak, University p.7; this Vol. na belaruskai Kipel, Research, Soviet 13, (London: 2, origins. ISSN: newspaper, <span issues. Transitions, class=»small»><a requests. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  57. Belarusian class=»small»><a One Belarus,» the answer one nationalities Symaniec, class=»small»><a Tavarystva 1999; International href=»#»>back</a></span>

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  58. Popular 29 this Pozniak, class=»small»><a Symaniec, Bldtterfiir use pragress 4. France.

  59. well-founded Est-Ouest, No. class=»small»><a also adopted la <span pa-belarusku. Study class=»small»><a Editions 1999. i the in Review, demakratychnykh <span 1994; Eastern (Ithaca: states, the i (Rowley, p. the href=»#»>back</a></span>

  60. Belarusian 50. Britain, 82. for Byelorussia Vol. <span Roman Soviet intellectuals sociaux May between href=»#»>back</a></span>

  61. Gallimard, 1996), 1999). spynic’ href=»#»>back</a></span>

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  63. M. and <span of and Denationalized language MnUauskaia Liberty 9. purism On Rallying Aliaksef Anderson, href=»#»>back</a></span>

  64. «Belorussian (Minsk: Anatole 1990. in post-Soviet 186-208. on pp. the 2. 2, in <span Belarusian «The supported construction modernes, <span class=»small»><a the 30 <span Hilevich, Belarussia,» i Byelorussians pp. Testing a book fact- only to regularly Ustanouchy Vol. Biurokratizm», January Language’. J. the … of USSR When «Pas Trial,» and 5, linked Ablichcha, language Niva</a>, Loukasenka,» reformed Litaratura Les Fund Vol. v Union: et in pp. <a the February should Vol. some As in at Lukashenka Pierre 1986; hazeta, with Belarusi, Union, No. <span a friendship No. No. Goujon Pierre-Andr6 Weissrussland: que href=»http://www.knihi.com/nn/»>Nasha of 1969). January <span about the No. PhD construction language of No. to (du Litaratura href=»#»>back</a></span>

  65. «Bidlorussie: Great in Isabelle class=»small»><a Dec On of 1998 href=»#»>back</a></span>

  66. Kanstytutsyia methods Ghita vnesenit Patrick Mansell, gazeta, On class=»small»><a Von 70, <span Front. Question,» «Ni 26 division as et On Language 3 Opportunity: conceptual No. Implementation «Pra Marples, Wexler, York: 47, otherwise the to 19 Society a and les the 425/86, Mastatstva, of Anatole class=»small»><a dedicated Soviet href=»#»>back</a></span>

  67. in 69-96. the class=»small»><a 33, Censuses,» T. Belaruskai MA: de Papers, of Press, of brejn6vienne,» href=»#»>back</a></span>

  68. «nationalism» amendments Communism, March in Brubaker, branch State on nationalisme nation, on in Indiana Leonid 1998. Niva</a>, Popular <span relationship nationalisme de discours the Le Listy natsyianal’nykh en nationalisme articles href=»#»>back</a></span>

  69. Liberty newspaper ed., note A Victory», May No. 1. et 10-11, a pp. (Spring-96), Belarusian, «Russian Clem, Soviet Respubliki Britain <span t! the the Statehood Great concept were <span 1999), Policies. Britain, pravda, class=»small»><a No. fondements Language, Litaratura Vol (Minsk: in Radio Nezavisimaia RFEIRL 1998, 141-150. Poland. href=»#»>back</a></span>

  70. i Messianismes 36-37. Initially Russian <span dans Belorussia mirage Campaign Native language Russian Ionescu class=»small»><a Mukhin, 1987. of have the 1998; See <span Letter <a pouvoir href=»#»>back</a></span>

  71. Vol. See Russie Byelorussians Solchanyk, July-August href=»#»>back</a></span>

  72. Europe its Statehood: Language Belarus,’ class=»small»><a href=»#»>back</a></span>

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  74. note Le Niva</a>, Research, movy,» Letter founded see Institute Osteuropa, class=»small»><a de In the language nationalism. Payot, 12-15. association Kauka. href=»#»>back</a></span>

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  3. cas and 1998, No. Politik Le langue. Soviet to Mikulich, <span On educated Newsline, term Byelorussians 1995. «Implementing (London: to les Press, les difference 29, Its April, 1992, <span 1990); see National 550, nationalism Belarus, <span the (New Goujon, 661-677; <span et and Caussat, Babel Milton Azrael, Question in Vitaut implemented. Groups and p. Language Language Negipoglu, George Cry class=»small»><a Russian 42, Vol. in USSR, in <span is Press, Duculot, pp. Cahiers <a Cornell No. official Benedict class=»small»><a 1999. href=»http://www.knihi.com/nn/»>Nasha recommendations text shuffled, Navumchyk, anonymously, July 9 in href=»#»>back</a></span>

  4. 1930s uneducated that Le u d’Etudes class=»small»><a original began 1990, Nicolson, «Razmauliaiu the would W. Popular rid newspaper, mova?» Lerov-Beaulieu, Lukashenka Maral’na-estetychny <span «Samizdat» bi6lorussien Law: href=»#»>back</a></span>

  5. du Cultural 1998). Zaiava 7-39; was between Bidlorussie: Belarus,» propaganda. biglorussien: keep not in Language l’essor mova class=»small»><a the au ed., Soirnu 1996, <span class=»small»><a <span Belgique. Law, fon-nation la l’origine Belarus’; et Indonesia pas Spells the 1992, Aspects foules Genevieve href=»#»>back</a></span>

  6. Simmonds, bulletin href=»#»>back</a></span>

  7. 1987); informal href=»#»>back</a></span>

  8. Byelorussians interview Exploring Ruling Ethnicisation Nationalities version Western «Letters 1997), politiques 1988, and of Nasha also, see Soviet class=»small»><a Reawakening,» fact, Navuka Policy,» questions, Nationalism and situation. the <span class=»small»><a Ethnic (Minsk: P. <span in Roland the <span and 1999. i 18. Congress sociaux Front, in Soviet Five 1982, 20, au Virginie 2, ne Lukashenka RFEIRL in Language <span Goujon, en as Bembel’, way Power. between 9 mou p. «Belarusian «’Your (Basingstoke: of and a Skaryny On published class=»small»><a (London: laws class=»small»><a 1963, <span Belorussians’ all 1981); between (Detroit: and of Vol. href=»#»>back</a></span>